- Respiratory infections, most commonly viruses. Fungi, bacteria, or parasites may be responsible in some people.
- Allergens, such as pollen, dust mites, and feathered or furry animals.
- Airborne irritants, such as cigarette smoke, irritant dusts, cold air, vapours and fumes, atmospheric pollution.
- Weather changes, such as cold air.
- Emotional factors, such as stress or laughing.
- Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
- Allergic rhinitis and sinusitis.
- Occupational sensitizers, such as isocyanates.
- Drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and beta-blockers.
- Foods containing sulphites, such as beer, wine, and shrimps.
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