- Various risk factors may increase the likelihood of development or persistence of asthma:
- Family history of atopic disease (for example asthma, eczema, allergic rhinitis, or allergic conjunctivitis).
- Co-existence of atopic disease.
- Male sex (for pre-pubertal asthma) and female sex (for persistence of asthma from childhood to adulthood).
- Bronchiolitis in infancy.
- Parental smoking, including perinatal exposure to tobacco smoke.
- Low birthweight (associated with intrauterine growth retardation).
- Premature birth (especially in extreme-preterm infants who required ventilatory support, with consequent chronic lung disease of prematurity).
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